Another cause of discomfort were the mosquitoes. Even back to the War of 1812, attacks by these varmints almost led one group of American militia to mutiny against authorities.
And, also there were the ever present gnats, no-see-ums and seasonal deer flies. Scott Nunn said that the latter are still there at Fort Fisher. Once he was exploring the fort one humid late-summer day and got on an off-the-beaten path and was run out of the grove by a swarm of deer flies.
I can relate to that as one May day near Savannah at my sister's house, i was out in her backyard to collect Southern soil for use on the graves of Confederates buried in the North when she warned me about the deer flies. I've often encountered flies so figured perhaps they were like the big old horse flies, fairly easily avoided.
I went out to the back and stooped to get the dirt when suddenly a huge cloud of deer flies descended upon me. They were so thick I almost couldn't see and landing everywhere on me. My sister and family were watching from the house and were greatly amused to see me running full tilt out of the trees, waving my hands and yelling (well, probably screaming). It was indeed my "Great Skedaddle!"
I tell you, I hope to never have an encounter with them again.
Still Having Nightmares 'Bout 'Em. --Old Secesh